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Cloud Computing - High-Speed Serial Interface

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing has increased data traffic in conjunction with the growth of IoT, and the use of AR/VR applications and AI has also been spurring this increase. Moreover, ultra-high speed serial interface technologies are becoming increasing necessary, due to progress in edge computing for realizing ultra-reliable and low latency communication (URLLC) and massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC).

Anritsu has been developing digital signal and optical analysis technologies, which have grown exponentially faster since when communication networks became digital and optical. We continue to face the challenge of technologies to evaluate serial interfaces and communication, which will continue to accelerate, along with the technological revolution.

FTTx and the addition of new data centers have expanded optical networks, and the demand for optical devices, modules, and fiber used in these networks is continuously growing. Anritsu supports the transmission quality of optical networks through technologies to analyze optical transmission quality.

Ultra-High Speed Digital Signal Analysis

Anritsu’s BERT (Bit Error Rate Tester) is able to emit signals with the highest performance in the industry, exceeding 58 Gbit/s (1 Gbit is 109 bits), using our proprietary ultra-high speed digital signal technologies (e.g., low residual jitter clock generation technology utilizing advanced synthesizer control and technology to realize a data output module utilizing a hybrid integrated circuit (HIC) structure, which consists of a thin film substrate, bare IC chip, and peripheral circuits and possesses excellent transmission characteristics, from DC to high frequency).

Moreover, noise and other factors exert a major impact on communication, as devices become faster and achieve lower voltage operations in order to consume less power. Anritsu’s BERT achieves high-precision signal analysis in actual communication environments, through pre-emphasis/de-emphasis that simulates the communication environment, functions to add noise (jitter), and receiver interfaces with high sensitivity and a broad frequency range.

Optical Analysis Technologies

Optical spectrum analyzers (OSAs) to evaluate the performance of optical devices and modules are required to have a broad dynamic range. Anritsu’s OSAs achieve a broad dynamic range by utilizing a diffraction grating in the spectrometer, and adopting a double-pass configuration that further increases the number of passes through the diffraction grating.

We are also able to accurately measure optical signals with noise components in a short amount of time, utilizing means such as a technology to calculate noise power by estimating the noise function of a measured optical spectrum, in order to calculate the final optical signal power.

The core of an optical fiber is surrounded by a coating, and it is impractical to visually detect deterioration or breaks in the core, in cases such as when a fiber is laid over a large distance. In such situations, an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR), one of our test and measurement instruments, is used to diagnose the state of the optical fiber.

An OTDR applies optical pulses into the optical fiber core, with a width of approximately 10μm (1 μ = one millionth), which is thinner than a human hair. The ODTR then measures the distance, loss, and return loss by analyzing the light waveform received from the Rayleigh scattered light and Fresnel reflected light generated within the optical fiber, and the back scattered light returning to the incident end of the optical fiber.

To perform higher accuracy measurements, a circuit is necessary to speed up the sampling of the received back scattered light. However, the OTDRs used when laying, maintaining, and inspecting optical fiber must be compact, portable, and battery operated. Anritsu realizes both compactness and low power consumption of OTDR, by utilizing our proprietary patented technologies.

Waveform Quality Analysis Technologies Using Sampling Oscilloscopes

To achieve accurate, high-speed optical communication in an optical network, it is vital to perform an eye pattern analysis for the optical output signals of the optical transceiver using a sampling oscilloscope and evaluate the waveform quality.

Current data centers mainly use 25 Gbit/s signals. In order to accurately measure the eye patterns of these ultra-high speed optical signals, it is necessary to broaden the frequency band (3dB band characteristic) of the signal input component (optical/electrical conversion circuit and sampler circuit) to 40 GHz, and to simultaneously adjust the frequency band according to the measurement signal speed.

Anritsu’s sampling oscilloscope is able to broaden and adjust the frequency band using our proprietary ultra-high speed analog circuit control technology.

A vital role of test and measurement instruments is to determine where the problem in the device under test lies. The cause of the noise can be inferred by analyzing the noise (jitter) component of the signal observed via a sampling oscilloscope. There are various types of jitter, depending on the cause, and we classify and analyze the jitter components of ultra-high speed signals by conducting a real-time FFT calculation utilizing DSP.