This article outlines Anritsu’s PCI-Express Gen4 RX Test Solution, test procedures, and precautions.
The recent improvement to semiconductor device performance has seen bit rates of 28 Gbps become commonplace. As a result, accurate evaluation of device characteristics requires testing by injecting multiple types of jitter on the device under test (DUT). This Application Note explains each type of jitter, gives some guidance about measurements for complex jitter tests, and describes some concrete examples of jitter tolerance measurements using the Anritsu MP1900A.
The purpose of an in-building wireless (IBW) system is to provide enhanced network coverage
and/or capacity when the existing macro network is not able to adequately service the
demand. Coverage may be poor due to high penetration losses caused by the building
structure or due to low emissivity glass installed to improve the thermal performance of the building. In dense urban environments, adjacent buildings may create an RF barrier that blocks coverage from nearby macro sites. Tall buildings typically have poor coverage on
upper floors since macro site antennas, many floors below, are specifically designed to
suppress energy radiating above the horizon. Capacity may be an issue in venues such as
stadiums, coliseums and convention centers where many thousands of users may be trying to
simultaneously access the network.
This application note explains how to upgrade the MT8870A firmware. The firmware is upgraded using the MX887900A Utility Tool. The Utility Tool is supplied on the DVD and must be installed separately from the main CombiView installation.
Instead of transferring 1 bit information using two values of 1 or 0 in one time slot like NRZ, the PAM4 signal transfers 2 bits information using four values in one time slot.
Although PAM has dual advantages of aintaining the signal bit rate while increasing the data transfer capacity it has the disadvantage of
simultaneously minimizing voltage level differences for each signal in one time slot,
causing a degraded signal to noise ratio (SNR).
This Application Note explains generation of PAM signals with the above characteristics
as well as the relative BER measurement method.
As fiber and free-space optical communication bandwidths increase, the need for very high speed optical
modulators and detectors has also increased. The frequency response characterization of these electrical-to optical
(E/O, modulators sometimes integrated with lasers) and optical-to-electrical (O/E, photo detectors and receivers) converters can be important in terms of such parameters as bandwidth, flatness, phase linearity and
This paper presents an accurate, flexible and cost-effective technique to conduct electro-optical testing on fiber optic components, such as laser modulators and photodiodes, using VNAs. The simplicity of Anritsu’s MN4765B O/E calibration modules allows highly accurate, vector-error-corrected and stable measurements with the full line of Anritsu VNAs.
This note describes how the Network Master Pro Auto Discovery feature discovers other remote Network Master Pro units on the network, and use of the In-Band Control feature to control and adjust discovered remote units.
This Application Note explains how to cut development and manufacturing time and costs by combining the Signal Analyzer MS2850A with a dedicated data-transfer interface for high-speed transfer of large amounts of digitized data captured over long time periods. It also explains the excellent performance of the MS2850A as a single port digitizer for RF / microwave signals.
It is becoming increasingly important to complete testing on the OTN (Optical Transport Network) at different layers and levels to ensure the underlying transport layer is performing correctly. This is necessary to ensure upper layers can transport their payload without causing any network errors.
As modern operators move OTN closer to customers, all ODU (Optical channel Data Unit) layers must be tested to ensure the circuit delivers or exceeds “five 9s” performance.
As operators migrate from legacy (SDH/SONET/PDH/DSn) networks to the current or future (10 GigE/1 GigE, MPLS-TP/PBB-TE) networks, today's test equipment must be able to test OTN (Optical Transport Network) as well as legacy and future networks running over OTN. Operators’ Metro to Core networks are evolving and must support all technologies both future and legacy. Testing these networks must confirm the "five 9s" performance on the OTN layer as well as from the Access to Core network—the focus of this Application Note.
Until recently, one of the only options available to engineers for making spectrum analysis measurements at mmWave frequencies required using external harmonic mixers to downconvert signals into frequency ranges of available spectrum analyzers. These mixers can produce artifacts, making it difficult to distinguish between the behavior of the device under test (DUT) and the mixer. These artifacts can also add erroneous power to the signal, impacting the measurement. This is in addition to the already reduced amplitude
sensitivity, frequency accuracy/stability, and the increased cost of adding the mixer.
The Spectrum Master MS2760A does not use harmonic mixers in order to reach the required frequencies. By utilizing Anritsu's patented non-linear transmission line (NLTL) technology, it is capable of performing
single sweep coverage from 9 kHz up to 110 GHz (model dependent). As a result, the Spectrum Master MS2760A provides a cleaner response in the mmWave bands.
This application note explains how to capture IQ data for debugging.
This application note talks about some of the factors that affect the reliability of the critical radio link of a drone, the challenges associated with testing this radio link, and some solutions to improve and simplify testing.
This application note talks about how to generate traffic using the latest Ixia Chariot software within
the Azimuth Systems context using two different approaches: Azimuth’s Director II™ Test Executive
and the TCL (Transmission Control Language) API.
This application note talks about how to generate traffic using the latest iPerf software within the Azimuth Systems context using two different approaches: Azimuth’s Director II™ Test Executive and the TCL (Transmission Control Language) API.
5G networks will provide wider channel bandwidths and
greater data capacity than current 4G networks. Channel
bandwidths greater than 200 MHz and data rates of tens of
gigabits per second are planned.
Read more about these new test Challenges.
In high-speed digital signals, a scrambling method is used with signals such as PRBS patterns to maintain a fixed transmitted signal DC Offset, to keep the ratio of 1s and 0s in the transmitted pattern, and to avoid too many contiguous 1s or 0s. An effective way of understanding the product characteristics is to run tests of Rx tolerance to contiguous 1s and 0s in an environment where such contiguous 1s and 0s rarely occur.
This field brief will discuss phase-matching cables, S-parameter definitions as they apply to cable characterization and other cable parameters such as Phase Shift and Group Delay. Advanced Time-Domain measurements will also be presented as enhancements to the well-known Distance-to-Fault (DTF) techniques. In addition, diagnostic tools like the Smith Chart will be briefly described.
In this Understanding Guide we will introduce the basic fundamentals of the Vector Network
Analyzer (VNA). Specific topics to be covered include phase and amplitude measurements,
scattering parameters (S-parameters), and the polar and Smith chart displays.