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Rush current:

This is the over-current that flows momentarily when the power switch is set to ON.

For example, in the case of a switching power supply, a rush current of several times the rated current may flow for an instant. When it is fed to other equipment by thin wires, the voltage may drop at power-on with a bad impact on the main unit and other equipment. In addition, if the power circuit breaker has a small capacity, the power-on rush current may trip the breaker.


PL (Product Liability) Law:

This is one of the law related to the safety of manufactured and processed goods and the liability of manufacturers related to damage or injuries caused by their products.

Inspection during development of manufacturing technologies, processing and before shipment plays a large role in increasing safety and minimizing liability. X-ray Inspection Systems and Metal Detectors are being widely introduced to detect contaminants in products and increase consumer safety.


IP (International Protection) Standards:

The IP standards regulate the protection class of electrical equipment for waterproofness and ingress of solid materials.



The x x in IP x x indicates the dust and waterproof protection class.

The first digit specifies the presence or absence of holes running from the exterior to the interior and the size of any holes. In other words, it regulates the holes (apertures) through which contaminants, fingers, and hands can be placed.

The second digit indicates the protection class regulating water ingress and damage.



No ingress of water when sprayed from 6.3-mm diameter nozzle at 12.5 ±5% liters/minute at 2.5 to 3 meters from equipment in all three directions. The diameter of the water jet 2.5 meters from the nozzle is 40 mm.



No ingress of water when sprayed from12.5-mm diameter nozzle at 100 ±5% liters/minute at 2.5 to 3 meters from equipment in all three directions. The diameter of the water jet 2.5 meters from the nozzle is 120 mm.



Protected against dust and the effect of temporary immersion in water between 15 cm and 1 m in depth for 30 minutes.

In Anritsu, IP65, IP66, IP67 compliant indicates that the machines meet the above standards for dust and waterproofness.



(Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)

With HACCP, which is a hygienic preventative approach to food safety, potential hazards at all stages of processes from acceptance of raw materials to manufacturing of final products are analyzed in advance (HA). Critical control points (CCP) to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards are then specified to focus control points, and these points are continuously monitored and recorded (monitoring). Introduction of HACCP, which allows appropriate measures to be taken as soon as any abnormalities are found, is now being promoted internationally.



(Good Manufacturing Practice)

Good manufacturing practice (GMP) is a regulation specifying manufacturing control and compliance rules to provide safe and high-quality products.

To continuously manufacture conforming items based on this practice, all necessary processes must be validated, a control system including education and training must be arranged, measuring instruments used for testing and inspection must be periodically checked, calibrated, and maintained, and the results of such inspections must be maintained as records.



Validation is defined as establishing documented evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its pre-determined specifications and quality attributes. In other words, when a customer

makes a claim about a product fault, validation permits the manufacturer to respond with production and inspection records related to the performance and function of the manufacturing and inspection equipment. Validation systems require creation of inspection rules, archiving and management of inspection results, creation of operation manuals, etc.


Traceability (In the case of Japan):

Traceability is defined by JIS as a system for tracing the accuracy and calibration of measurement standards and measuring equipment back to higher-level national or international standards.

For example, the calibration weights used to calibrate a Checkweigher must be directly traceable back the Japanese National Standards and are periodically tested by an approved testing organization to ensure their accuracy and traceability.