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Application Notes

Use these reference documents to understand common measurements and to solve specific base station problems. Although many describe step-by-step measurements using Anritsu equipment, the same techniques can be applied to instruments from other manufacturers as well.

Interference Analysis

Solving Your Radio Frequency Interference Problems
RF interference takes many forms. In this application note we discuss how to detect and eliminate, or at least reduce, interference caused by discrete emitters. These emitters may be devices intended to be transmitters or they may be devices that due to design flaws or malfunctions are radiating signals where they shouldn’t be. Interference caused by intermodulation is also reviewed. Download Now.

Practical Tips on Measuring Interference
Hands-on tips for both licensed and unlicensed systems, there are two basic types of interference: a) in-channel signals and noise, and b) out-of-channel signals. This note provides hands-on measurement tips and procedures which will help a field technician measure signal interference in a functioning system. Download Now

Base Station Analysis

Practical Tips on WCDMA Measurements
This note provides measurement tips and procedures to assist the field-based network technician or RF engineer in conducting Node B troubleshooting and maintenance on WCDMA access networks. It describes the evolution of WCDMA with terminology and includes detailed step-by-step instructions for making WCDMA measurements. Download Now.

Practical Tips on HSDPA Measurements
As a 3.5-G mobile telephony protocol, HSDPA improves end-user experience by increasing peak data rates to 14.4 Mbps in the downlink, reducing delay and increasing system capacity by 200 to 300%. This note presents measurement tips and procedures which will help a field-based network technician or RF engineer conduct Node B measurements on HSDPA overlay networks. Download Now.

Practical Tips on CDMA Measurements
This note presents measurement tips and procedures which will help a field-based network technician or RF engineer conduct base transceiver station (BTS) field measurements on cdmaOne and CDMA2000 networks. Includes a detailed discussion of CDMA standards and terminology as well as the difference between cdmaOne and CDMA2000 1xRTT. Download Now.

Practical Tips on cdma2000 1xEV-DO Forward-Link Movement
This note presents measurement tips and procedures which will help a field-based network technician or RF engineer conduct base transceiver station (BTS) forward-link measurements on 1xEV-DO access networks, using Anritsu’s Cell Master MT8212B or a similar instrument. Cell Master’s support for RF measurements, demodulation and OTA measurements in cdma2000 1xEV-DO wireless networks is essential to those wanting to zero in on problems, while minimizing service disruptions and time offline. Download Now.

Making 1xEVDO Measurements with MT8212B Cell Master
1xEV-DO is the next evolution of cdma2000 intended to provide faster data transmission capabilities for mobile phones. EV-DO stands for “Evolution, Data-Only” and is based on the technology initially known as High Data Rate (HDR) or High Rate Packet Data (HRPD). This application note shows how to perform 1xEV-DO Rev. A measurements by directly connecting to the Base Station or by over the air using an antenna. Download Now.

Practical Tips on WiMAX Field Measurements
This application note presents tips and procedures which will help a field-based network technician or RF engineer conduct measurements on WiMAX networks. Both Fixed and Mobile WiMAX are discussed in detail with instructions for performing specific measurements including screen shots. Download Now.

Cable and Antenna Analysis

Distance-To-Fault (DTF) is a performance verification and failure analysis measurement used for antenna and transmission line service and maintenance. It employs the Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) measurement technique, which is far more sensitive than traditional Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) techniques and can precisely locate faults and degradation in system performance, not just DC open or short circuit conditions. This dual role of predicting future failure conditions and isolating existing problems makes DTF an important part of service and maintenance on transmission lines. Download Now.

Practical Tips on Transmission Measurements
This note presents measurement tips and procedures which will help a field technician verify a Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) or duplexer (send/receive path filter), typically found in wireless communication applications. These measurements have been done traditionally with a tracking generator combined with a spectrum analyzer, but this note describes a more reliable method using dynamic attenuation-an option on the Anritsu Spectrum Master family. Download Now

Cell Master Average Cable Loss Measurement
The traditional way to perform average insertion loss measurements is to find the minimum return loss and the maximum return loss in the frequency range of interest by using marker to peak and marker to valley, then solve this simple equation while you’re hanging from a tower 100 feet in the air. This document describes an easier way to perform these measurements, using the Anritsu Cell Master or a similar instrument. Download Now.

FlexCal Broadband Calibration and Measurement
The FlexCal broadband calibration method is an OSL-based method with interpolation to accommodate for adjusted frequencies. It provides a quick, easy and accurate method of troubleshooting and identifying faulty antenna system components without having to perform multiple calibrations. Field technicians can even change the frequency range after calibration; a useful capability in both the Return Loss and DTF modes. With the FlexCal calibration method, field technicians can now realize a significant time savings, while more effectively dealing with the variables that typically affect measurement uncertainty and accuracy. Download Now.

Power Measurements

Power Measurements: Handheld Site Master, VNA Master, Spectrum Master, BTS Master and Cell Master
Anritsu’s handheld instruments offer a wide range of modes and options for power measurements including the High Accuracy Power Meter, the Internal Power Meter, the External Power Monitor, and the Channel Scanner. This application note discusses the basics of these different power meter solutions and how Anritsu’s handheld products can be used to make power meter measurements for different applications. Download Now.

Cell Master MT8212A T1 Measurements
In addition to transmission lines and RF equipment, cellular service quality is dependent upon the wired backhaul facilities used to interconnect the BTS and MSC. This note reviews the basics of digital telephony as it applies to the wireless service provider. It can serve as the starting point for the experienced RF technician to begin troubleshooting the wired digital transmission problems that can adversely affect the quality of service seen by end users. Download Now.