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Long Term Evolution - LTE

LTE is the first technology designed explicitly for Next Generation Networking (NGN) and is set to become the de-facto NGN mobile access network standard. It takes advantage of NGN capabilities to provide an always-on mobile data experience comparable to wired networks.

  • LTE-Advanced supports peak data rates of more than 300 Mbps on the downlink when using Carrier Aggregation (2 x 20 MHz channel bandwidth) with 2x2 MIMO or 4x2 MIMO and two times the throughput on 3GPP Release 8/9.
  • LTE supports peak data rates of 100 Mbps on the downlink when using 20 MHz channel bandwidth, two transmit antennas at the base station and two receive antennas at the User Equipment (UE). LTE also supports peak data rates of 50 Mbps on the uplink when using a 20 MHz channel bandwidth; and single transmit antennas at the UE and base station.
  • LTE generates ten to twelve times the throughput on the downlink and eight to ten times the throughput on the uplink relative to 3GPP Release 6.
  • LTE improves spectrum efficiency as defined relative to Release 6. The uplink and downlink capabilities are two to four times the spectral efficiency of High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA).
  • LTE has flexible duplex methods. Both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) are valid spectrum allocations and allow LTE to accommodate various channel bandwidths in the available spectrum.
  • LTE interoperates with W-CDMA, GSM, and CDMA2000 systems. Multimode UEs will support handover to and from these other systems.
  • Legacy technologies such as HSPA Evolution and Enhanced EDGE will continue to operate within the new network architecture.

 

TDD/FDD Access

LTE standards support the use of both TDD (Time Domain Duplex) and FDD (Frequency Domain Duplex) from the same set of standards, and with the same air interface characteristics.

Multiple Input Multiple Out (MIMO)

MIMO is an antenna technology that, together with signal processing, can either increase capacity (spatial multiplexing) or signal-to-noise ratio (transmit diversity) in a radio link.

In LTE using 2x2 MIMO with spatial multiplexing, the user data is separated into two data sets each fed to two transmit antennas and received by two receive antennas. Because of multi-path, each data set travels a distinct RF path with different propagation characteristics. The algorithm used to split and recombine the data allows the system to make use of the independence of these two paths in order to improve throughput. The two data streams occupy the same RF channel at the same time. This doubles the data rate possible on the air interface link.

When using MIMO with transmit diversity, the same user data is transmitted from both antennas, and at each receiver, replicas of the signal are processed. This duplication enhances signal-to-noise ratio and improves signal robustness.



Описание

LTE is the first technology designed explicitly for Next Generation Networking (NGN) and is set to become the de-facto NGN mobile access network standard. It takes advantage of NGN capabilities to provide an always-on mobile data experience comparable to wired networks.

  • LTE-Advanced supports peak data rates of more than 300 Mbps on the downlink when using Carrier Aggregation (2 x 20 MHz channel bandwidth) with 2x2 MIMO or 4x2 MIMO and two times the throughput on 3GPP Release 8/9.
  • LTE supports peak data rates of 100 Mbps on the downlink when using 20 MHz channel bandwidth, two transmit antennas at the base station and two receive antennas at the User Equipment (UE). LTE also supports peak data rates of 50 Mbps on the uplink when using a 20 MHz channel bandwidth; and single transmit antennas at the UE and base station.
  • LTE generates ten to twelve times the throughput on the downlink and eight to ten times the throughput on the uplink relative to 3GPP Release 6.
  • LTE improves spectrum efficiency as defined relative to Release 6. The uplink and downlink capabilities are two to four times the spectral efficiency of High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA).
  • LTE has flexible duplex methods. Both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) are valid spectrum allocations and allow LTE to accommodate various channel bandwidths in the available spectrum.
  • LTE interoperates with W-CDMA, GSM, and CDMA2000 systems. Multimode UEs will support handover to and from these other systems.
  • Legacy technologies such as HSPA Evolution and Enhanced EDGE will continue to operate within the new network architecture.

 

TDD/FDD Access

LTE standards support the use of both TDD (Time Domain Duplex) and FDD (Frequency Domain Duplex) from the same set of standards, and with the same air interface characteristics.

Multiple Input Multiple Out (MIMO)

MIMO is an antenna technology that, together with signal processing, can either increase capacity (spatial multiplexing) or signal-to-noise ratio (transmit diversity) in a radio link.

In LTE using 2x2 MIMO with spatial multiplexing, the user data is separated into two data sets each fed to two transmit antennas and received by two receive antennas. Because of multi-path, each data set travels a distinct RF path with different propagation characteristics. The algorithm used to split and recombine the data allows the system to make use of the independence of these two paths in order to improve throughput. The two data streams occupy the same RF channel at the same time. This doubles the data rate possible on the air interface link.

When using MIMO with transmit diversity, the same user data is transmitted from both antennas, and at each receiver, replicas of the signal are processed. This duplication enhances signal-to-noise ratio and improves signal robustness.



Downlink/Uplink

DL/UL Peak Rates for E-UTRA FDD/TDD (Frame Structure Type 1)

 
Downlink
Uplink
Assumptions
64 QAM, R=1

Signal overhead for reference signals and control channel occupying one OFDM symbol
Single TX UE, R=1

Signal overhead for reference signals and control channel occupying 2RB
Unit

Mbps in 20 MHz

b/s/Hz Mbps in 20 MHz b/s/Hz
Requirement 100 5.0 50 2.5
Modulation
2x2 MIMO: 172.8
4x4 MIMO: 326.4
2x2 MIMO: 8.6
4x4 MIMO: 16.3
16QAM: 57.6
64QAM: 86.4
16QAM: 2.9
64QAM: 4.3


Peak Rates for E-UTRA TDD (TD Frame Structure Type 2)

 
Downlink
Uplink
Assumptions
64 QAM, R=1

frame structure type 3
Single TX UE, 64QAM, R=1

frame structure type 2
Unit

Mbps in 20 MHz

b/s/Hz Mbps in 20 MHz b/s/Hz
Requirement 100 5.0 50 2.5
2x2 MIMO in DL 142
7.1
62.7 3.1
4x4 MIMO in DL
270
13.5

Downlink Key Features

  • OFDM-based, 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing
  • BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM modulation
  • Variable RF bandwidth, 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz
  • MIMO in the form of transmit diversity or spatial multiplexing
  • Scheduling, link adaptation, HARQ and measurements similar to 3.5G
  • MBMS
  • Carrier Aggregation
  • eICIC / FeICIC / CoMP

 

Uplink Key Features

  • Single Carrier FDMA, 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing
  • BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM modulation
  • Variable RF bandwidth, 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz
  • Scheduling, link adaptation, HARQ and measurements similar to 3.5G
  • Random access procedures
  • Carrier Aggregation

Products

Портативный анализатор спектра Spectrum Master MS2712E

MS2712E

Портативный анализатор спектра
Частота 9 кГц – 4 ГГц
Разрешение по полосе пропускания 1 Гц – 3 МГц

Портативный анализатор спектра Spectrum Master MS2713E

MS2713E

Портативный анализатор спектра
Частота 9 кГц – 6 ГГц
Разрешение по полосе пропускания 1 Гц – 3 МГц

Spectrum Master MS2720T

MS2720T

Портативный анализатор спектра
Частоты 9 кГц – 9 ГГц, 13 ГГц, 20 ГГц,
32 ГГц, 43 ГГц

Cell Master MT8212E

MT8212E

Анализатор базовых станций
с частотой векторного анализа цепей 2 МГц – 4 ГГц
и частотой при внезапных фазовых аномалиях (SPA) 100 кГц – 4 ГГц

Cell Master MT8213E

MT8213E

Анализатор базовых станций
с частотой векторного анализа цепей 2 МГц – 6 ГГц
и частотой при внезапных фазовых аномалиях (SPA) 100 кГц – 6 ГГц

BTS Master MT8820T

MT8220T

Base Station Analyzer
400 MHz - 6 GHz VNA frequency
150 kHz - 7.1 GHz SPA frequency

MX829000A

Sweep Master Pro web-based line sweep and tracking tool

MX829001A

Sweep Master Pro web-based line sweep and tracking tool with enhanced document capture capabilities

Измеритель мощности ML2437A

ML2437A

Измеритель мощности
с частотой от 100 кГц до 65 ГГц
полоса пропускания видео 100 кГц

Измеритель мощности ML2438A

ML2438A

Измеритель мощности
с частотой от 100 кГц до 65 ГГц
полоса пропускания видео 100 кГц

Широкополосный измеритель пиковой мощности ML2487B

ML2487B

Широкополосный измеритель пиковой мощности
100 кГц–65 ГГц частота
20 МГц полоса пропускания видеосигнала

Широкополосный измеритель пиковой мощности ML2488B

ML2488B

Широкополосный измеритель пиковой мощности
100 кГц–65 ГГц частота
20 МГц полоса пропускания видеосигнала

Измеритель импульсной мощности ML2495A

ML2495A

Измеритель импульсной мощности
100 кГц–65 ГГц частота
65 МГц полоса пропускания видеосигнала

Измеритель импульсной мощности ML2496A

ML2496A

Измеритель импульсной мощности
100 кГц–65 ГГц частота
65 МГц полоса пропускания видеосигнала

High Accuracy Power Sensor (Average) PSN50

PSN50

High Accuracy Power Sensor (Average) - 50 MHz to 6 GHz

Промежуточный датчик пиковой мощности MA2400xA

MA24105A

350 МГц — 4 ГГц

MA24106A USB Power Sensors

MA24106A

USB Power Sensor (Average) - 50 MHz to 6 GHz

Микроволновый датчик мощности с питанием от USB MA24108A

ma24105a

Универсальный микроволновый датчик мощности
с частотой 10 МГц – 18 ГГц
измерение истинного среднеквадратичного значения

Микроволновый датчик с питанием от USB MA24118A

MA24118A

Универсальный микроволновый датчик мощности
с частотой 10 МГц – 18 ГГц
измерение истинного среднеквадратичного значения

Microwave USB Power Sensor MA24126A

MA24126A

Microwave USB Power Sensor
10 MHz - 26 GHz frequency
True RMS Measurements

High Accuracy Diodes Sensors (CW) MA244xD Series

MA244xD Series

10 MHz to 50 GHz

Standard Diode Sensors (CW) MA247xD Series

MA247xD Series

10 MHz to 50 GHz

Universal Power Sensors (Average) MA248xD Series

MA248xD Series

10 MHz to 18 GHz

Universal Power Sensors (Average) MA248xD Series

MA249xA Series

Wideband Power Sensor
50 MHz to 18 GHz frequency
20 MHz video bandwidth

Pulse Sensor MA2411B

MA2411B

Pulse Sensor
300 MHz to 40 GHz frequency
50 MHz video bandwidth

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